MLA Works Cited: Cite Your Sources!

5736912The very last page of your research paper will be a Works Cited, a list of all resources (quotations, examples, statistics, etc.) used in your essay. NOT CITING YOUR SOURCES IS CONSIDERED PLAGIARISM AND WILL RESULT IN A ZERO FOR YOUR FINAL GRADE.


Follow the steps below to ensure formatting and content are correct:

  1. Gather all of your source URLs (as all of your sources are websites or reports published online) in one document. You can also open up each source in a new tab on your Internet browser.
  2. Go to and make sure “website” is selected (top tab). Copy and paste your URL and hit “Cite It.”
  3. Your website will likely pop up as an option. Select the correct source and click “Cite This.”
  4. Click “Continue to the Final Step.”
  5. MAKE SURE ALL OF THE REQUIRED INFORMATION IS ENTERED! Most times, you will have to fill in additional information EasyBib didn’t pick up. Keep the source open in another tab so you can easily switch back and forth to gather all of the required information. If you’re not sure if your citation is complete, ask Ms. Antonacci or Mrs. Miyahara to check it for you. 
  6. MLA changed its rules in 2016. Now all online sources MUST include a URL. Be sure the “Display URL” box is checked to include it.
  7. Repeat until you have all sources cited on EasyBib. Once you’re done, copy and paste your bibliography into the last page of your paper. EasyBib should automatically alphabetize all sources for you.

From Purdue OWL:

  1. Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper.
  2. Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize or bold the words “Works Cited” or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page.
  3. Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries.
  4. Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations by 0.5 inches to create a hanging indent.


  • All words in an article title should be capitalized, with the exception of articles (a/an, the) and prepositions (in, on, etc.) UNLESS the title starts with one of these words. Be sure to capitalize all verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.
    • Example: “Should School Uniforms be Mandated in Public Schools?”
    • Example: “Guy Tries to Buy Toy Poodles, Gets Fluffy, Steroid-Pumped Giant Ferrets Instead”
  • Author first and last names should be capitalized.
  • If there is more than one author, click “Add contributor” and include their name(s) as well.

Research Paper: Body Paragraphs

From the Purdue OWL: Body paragraphs: Moving from general to specific information

Your paper should be organized in a manner that moves from general to specific information. Every time you begin a new subject, think of an inverted pyramid – The broadest range of information sits at the top, and as the paragraph or paper progresses, the author becomes more and more focused on the argument ending with specific, detailed evidence supporting a claim. Lastly, the author explains how and why the information she has just provided connects to and supports her thesis (a brief wrap up or warrant).

This image shows an inverted pyramid that contains the following text. At the wide top of the pyramid, the text reads general information introduction, topic sentence. Moving down the pyramid to the narrow point, the text reads focusing direction of paper, telling. Getting more specific, showing. Supporting details, data. Conclusions and brief wrap up, warrant.

The four elements of a good paragraph (TTEB)

A good paragraph should contain at least the following four elements: Transition, Topic sentence, specific Evidence and analysis, and a Brief wrap-up sentence (also known as a warrant) –TTEB!

  1. A Transition sentence leading in from a previous paragraph to assure smooth reading. This acts as a hand off from one idea to the next.
  2. A Topic sentence that tells the reader what you will be discussing in the paragraph.
  3. Specific Evidence and analysis that supports one of your claims and that provides a deeper level of detail than your topic sentence.
  4. A Brief wrap-up sentence that tells the reader how and why this information supports the paper’s thesis. The brief wrap-up is also known as the warrant. The warrant is important to your argument because it connects your reasoning and support to your thesis, and it shows that the information in the paragraph is related to your thesis and helps defend it.

Research Paper: Crafting Your Thesis


What is a thesis statement?
A thesis statement is a guide to your paper. It tells the reader the subject matter, your argument, and what to expect from the rest of the paper. Usually, the thesis statement will come towards the end of the first paragraph.

Think of your first thesis as a “working thesis,” or a statement that is likely to change. Often, once you get into the body of the paper, you may discover that your thesis needs to be changed a bit as you discover more information.

Writing a good thesis statement:
When you are working on your thesis statement, keep these three tips in mind:

1. Make sure your thesis fits the scope of the paper. The scope means how long and how in-depth the research should be. If you only have two pages, you need to keep the thesis narrow enough to cover the argument adequately.
2. Don’t simply give a fact or make a statement that is obvious. For example, “An eating disorder is a serious disease” is a statement most would readily agree with. This is sometimes called a “so what?” thesis.
3. You don’t need to start your thesis with “I believe…” or “In my opinion…” You are the author of the paper, so this is obvious to the reader. Using these types of phrases weakens the power of your statement.

Album Critique Project

The album critique project is one of my favorites of this course! Please follow the steps below and start brainstorming.


Written Criteria (35 writing points):

  • The student’s review must be at 3 paragraphs in length (12 points).
  • Article must include a distinct paragraph arrangement that guides the audience’s reading and thinking about the album (5 points).
  • Article must include a distinct opinion of the work’s overall artistic value (3 points).
  • Article must include two MLA styled quotes to back opinions and prove research (5 points).
  • Article must include at least two MLA Works Cited Page Entries (5 points).
  • Article must be in proper MLA format (correct headings, 12 pt. font, double-spaced, 1″ margins) (5 points).

Language Criteria (20 Language Points):

  • Article must be clear of grammar and spelling errors (10 points).
  • Article must capture the wider picture of the album’s significance, be written engagingly, and add personal style to the topic (5 points).
  • Article must not use any Dead Words (5 points).

Your article MUST be printed before class. Failure to prepare will result in a deduction of points from the project. 


Possible Sources of Research:

Supplemental Resources:

“To Pimp A Butterfly” – Jose Razo


Extra Credit Assignment:

Worth a possible 20 Extra Credit Points! Using the photo editor create an alternative album cover for your selected album. Then in at least ten sentences, explain how the art mimics the mood and tone of the album. Below is an example from a student in Mr. Rossi’s class.


Week-at-a-Glance: Critical Lenses, cont’d.

For the rest of this week, we will wrap up the feminist lens and move on to psychoanalytic and reader response theories. Consider the information and questions below as you craft your analyses for each theory.

Psychoanalytic Literary Theory:


What Psychoanalytic critics do:

  1. Examine how each character attempts to re-achieve the narcissistic bliss we get to experience as babies; look for a possible “Oedipal complex” in any parent-child type of relationship (need not be biologically related characters; any mentor-protégé relationship may be analyzed like this)
  2. Examine how each character attempts to re-achieve a narcissistic bliss of ordered predictability and familiarity (this familiarity might be chaos, as in the case of the Joker of The Dark Knight—he is familiar with chaos, so he continually seeks disorder and creates mayhem).  Some characters do things that make them miserable, as if they are determined to be miserable (the sympathy they acquire from other characters and the readers is what they have been seeking all along).
  3. Explore the ways the libidos (sex drives) of the author, reader, character(s) work to influence the exhibit.
  4. In the Freudian tradition and manner, psychoanalyze all people involved in the work.

Questions Freudian/Psychoanalytic critics ask:

  1. Is the id winning in any character?
  2. Do any characters represent the id, the superego, or the ego?
  3. Are any of the characters repressing any of their true urges, dreams, or goals?
  4. Are there any sexual symbols?  (Freud researched and forced us to recognize our biological hard-wiring.)  Do these symbols imply anything about power?
  5. How are the characters seeking stages of narcissistic bliss?
  6. What is going on in the mind of any character in an exhibit?

Reader Response Literary Theory:


Reader Response theory is all about you – the reader! The text itself does not have meaning according to these critics; rather, it is the text’s interaction with the reader that creates meaning.

Questions Reader Response critics ask:

  1. How does the interaction of text and reader create meaning?
  2. What does a phrase-by-phrase analysis of a short literary text, or a key portion of a longer text, tell us about the reading experience prestructured by (built into) that text?
  3. Do the sounds/shapes of the words as they appear on the page or how they are spoken by the reader enhance or change the meaning of the word/work?
  4. How might we interpret a literary text to show that the reader’s response is, or is analogous to, the topic of the story?
  5. What does the body of criticism published about a literary text suggest about the critics who interpreted that text and/or about the reading experience produced by that text? (Tyson 191)

The Silence of our Friends: Final Discussion Thread

Using the blog and your cell phone or laptop, please post a 10 to 13 sentence response that answers 10 of the 13 following questions. You may post multiple times and respond to other posters to earn extra credit.

Separation Anxiety and Denouement: Due by end of class Friday, March 24, 2017

Link to Full Text PDF

Image result for the silence of our friends

  1. Houston has finally reached its boiling point. Which frame from this section most represents this?
  2. Read the following historical account of the officer who was killed during this sit in. How does the media account and the graphic novel’s narrative of his death contrast?
  3. Within your group, predict how Jack and Larry’s relationship will progress throughout the end of the novel.
  4. Early in the section, Larry explains, “Men of conscience have go to join together, Jack. Or nothing is going to change.” What does he mean by this statement? Does this apply to any current events?
  5. Barbara refuses to let her kids dress up for “Go Texan Day” at school. How does she believe that this supports the institution of segregation?
  6. Why does Larry allow his kids to change their clothing before they go to school?
  7. Explain the symbolism of Julie “seeing” Cecilia and Danny. How does this fit into a larger theme of the story?
  8. After dinner, Jack plays “Soul Man.” How is this a metaphoric action? What does it mean to have soul or be a soul man?
  9. Analyze the panel after Jack’s long time friend storms off. What is the graphic weight supposed to imply about the atmosphere of Houston and Jack’s conscience? How do you know?
  10. What is the public and personal outcome of the trial? What symbols are important to these outcomes?
  11. Analyze the second to last image of the novel that features the marchers’ feet leaving the ground. What is the deeper, symbolic meaning behind this act?
  12. The book ends with the quote that gives the story its name. In your own words, explain how this echoes the main theme of the novel.
  13. Summarize the main idea of the author’s note to the reader.